This is the fourth in a series of papers describing the burden of cardiovascular disease CVD within Europe. It accounted for The GBD also reported that CVD caused a greater number of deaths and was responsible for a greater percentage of all deaths than in when All data included here are updated from previous publications and we present prevalence statistics for the first time.
This series of publications describing the current burden and distribution of CVD and CHD in Europe has been based on the European Cardiovascular Disease Statistics report, 5 the fourth in a series of Europe-wide compendia, which was published jointly by the European Heart Network and the European Society of Cardiology.
Throughout this article, we present statistics from a number of data sources chosen with consideration of data quality, date of most recent update, and coverage of the European region.
Rather than collected data from individual countries we utilized major data sources which make their statistics publically available. Specifically, we aimed to obtain data for as many European countries as possible from as recently as possible. In order to present data on CVD throughout Europe, with a particular focus on the two most common forms of CVD: CHD and stroke, we identified international sources that collect and report comparable data for a number of countries.
Commonly, such sources are updated through routine and administrative data collections and provide an overview of the burden and distribution of CVD in Europe through the mortality, morbidity, and treatment associated with CVD across the continent. Mortality data come from the WHO Mortality Database using the most recent 25 November update of age- and cause-specific mortality data, and age-specific population data, by country.
The WHO database collates data reported by national authorities based on their civil registration systems and contains data for 52 of 53 European countries, with no data available for Andorra.
Age-standardized rates can only be calculated where data on the absolute number of an outcome and the population are available in comparable age-specific aggregates. Mortality data for Turkmenistan, for example, are now available forbut the most recent population data come fromhence rates for this country are from the earlier year. For one country Monacoalthough mortality data were available, no population data were.
These could not, therefore, be used in the presentation of age-standardized death rates ASDRs but were included in the calculations for total number of deaths and premature deaths in Europe. In order to calculate rates, population data from the same database were applied to these mortality data and were standardized using the European Standard Population ESP. WHO mortality and population data are relatively up to date, with the most recent data for only 11 of the 52 countries dating from or before; however, data from five countries were not available for any years more recent than AlbaniaSan MarinoTajikistanTurkmenistanand Uzbekistan Mortality rates are presented for CVD and CHD for all ages and for those under the ages of 65 and 75 years separately; deaths before these ages are often described as premature or preventable.
One DALY is equivalent to 1 year of healthy life lost and is a composite measure of years of life lost due to death from a condition and years lived with disability due to a condition. Prevalence data come from the European Social Survey. Using random probability methods, samples are drawn from each participating country and aim to be representative of all people aged 15 and over in that country. Data are only available for selected countries that participated in the survey.
In addition to discharge data, the average length of stay in hospitals ALOS is often regarded as a good indicator of health service efficiency.
The data cover all inpatient cases with the exception of the Netherlands where data refer to curative acute care only, resulting in an under estimation. Rates based on patient data refer to a death occurring in the same hospital, a different hospital, or out of hospital. This indicator is more robust because it captures fatalities more comprehensively. Admissions resulting in a transfer were excluded for some countries.Tweets by beppemarchitell.
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Roth, P.When the wagon in question offers a rakish roofline and the security of all-wheel drive, well, some of our reviewers have been known to become a little smitten. Riding 2. A wagon at its core, the V60 Cross Country is not to be confused with the Volvo XC60which leans to the luxury-crossover genre. Marketing types would prefer that buyers envision these vehicles as the perfect accessory for their active lifestyles, frequently presenting them in carefree scenarios involving rolling up the Pacific Coast Highway with camping gear in the back and a pair of kayaks on the roof.
Given their close kinship, it should come as no surprise that the Cross Country drives like a V60 wagon with a slightly higher center of gravity.
Weighing nearly two tons poundsits heft is evident. We pulled 0. Cog swaps are handled by a six-speed automatic, with a Sport mode that quickens shifts and enlivens throttle response. The five-cylinder provides quick if not neck-snapping acceleration, and we recorded a 6.
EPA-rated at 20 mpg in the city and 28 mpg on the highway, the V60 Cross Country returned 20 mpg in our hands.
2016 Volvo V60 Cross Country T5 AWD
Volvo claims the all-wheel-drive system can detect wheel slip, reduce power to that wheel, and redirect it to one with grip almost instantaneously. We found the seats to be some of the most comfortable currently available in this price range, save for the nonadjustable headrests; folks taller than, say, six-foot-two will want to try them on for size, as the headrest can seem uncomfortably low for certain body types. But for buyers who demand exclusivity with their utility, the V60 Cross Country offers a compelling option in a tiny segment—and it looks good doing so.
Displacement: cu in, cc Power: hp rpm Torque: lb-ft rpm. New Cars. Buyer's Guide. Type keyword s to search. Today's Top Stories. View Photos. What It Is Riding 2. This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano. This commenting section is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page.
You may be able to find more information on their web site. Advertisement - Continue Reading Below. More From Instrumented Tests. Join the Conversation Show Comments LoadingOverall percent utilization, percent utilization based on vehicle class, and truck-specific percent utilization are showcased as statistical metrics for each road section where applicable. The quality control feature of the system allow data edit checks and validation for data from the 84 permanent, continuous ATRs, and short-term traffic counts.
Program count data is collected both directions at regular locations on either a three 3 year or six 6 year cycle depending on type of roadway.Broan heater thermal fuse
Growth Factors are applied to counts which were not taken during the current year and the counts are factored based on the past yearly growth of an associated ATR.
Counters are placed for 48 hours on a Monday or Tuesday and are picked up that Thursday or Friday, respectively. The ATR and toll count data is collected on a continuous basis. A special numeric code was added to the AADT numbers, starting into identify the years when the count was actually taken. The last digit represents the number of years prior to the actual count.
The data is essential in the planning, design and operation of the statewide road system and the development and implementation of State highway improvement and safety programs. This data is for the year The information contained in geospatial data is from publicly available sources, but no representation is made as to the accuracy or completeness of geospatial data. Value: Login Get Token.
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Encouragingly, we discover decreases in environmental pressures in the wealthiest countries and those with strong control of corruption. Clearly the human footprint on Earth is changing, yet there are still opportunities for conservation gains. Humanity and nature form a coupled system 1. The ecological capital and ecosystem services provided by nature underpin our social and economic systems 2and we in turn apply pressure on these natural systems through our extraction of natural resources, the proliferation of our infrastructures and our conversion of natural habitats to production land uses 3.
There is mounting evidence that human demands on natural systems are accelerating and could be undermining the stability of these systems 4. A pervasive failure to mitigate these impacts is now resulting in widespread biodiversity declines 56 and reductions in the benefits humans receive from natural systems 2.
Understanding the spatial and temporal patterns in human pressures on the environment provides a foundation for mitigating environmental damage in sensitive or ecologically valuable areas. Human pressures on the environment, commonly referred to as threats to biodiversity, are the actions taken by humans with the potential to harm nature 7.
Recent advances in remote sensing have allowed unprecedented advances in mapping human pressures from habitat conservation through time, especially for forested landscapes 8.
However, many forms of human pressure on the environment, such as our extensive roads and pasture lands, are harder to detect than outright habitat conversation, and often overlooked by space-borne satellites 9. Cumulative threat mapping aims to surmount this limitation by including a range of human pressures within a framework that couples top-down remote sensing with data collected bottom-up via surveys A range of cumulative threat maps have been developed at regional 11 and global scales 12 The Human Footprint, first released in based on data from the early s ref.
Terrestrial maps of cumulative human pressures have proved to be better predictors of the range sizes of species than their biological traits, such as body size and trophic level 15and to be a strong predictor of modern range collapses 16the threat status of species 17site-scale species richness 18and species population size and dispersal ability Cumulative pressures are also associated with invasibility With calls for rapid action to prevent collapse of planetary ecological systems 21we need to better understand spatial and temporal trends in human pressures and their related consequences, so we can act accordingly.
Here we use the human footprint framework to compile remotely sensed and bottom-up survey information on eight variables measuring the direct and indirect human pressures on the environment in and We included data on the following: 1 extent of built environments; 2 crop land; 3 pasture land; 4 human population density; 5 night-time lights; 6 railways; 7 roads; and 8 navigable waterways.
These pressures were weighted according to estimates of their relative levels of human pressure following Sanderson et al.Riparto fondi sulla base dei costi a preventivo
The primary aims of this study are to update the original human footprint map to provide a contemporary view of human pressures, and to create the first temporally consistent maps of the human footprint, such that patterns of change over time can be analysed. In addition to these aims, we perform a number of preliminary analyses determinants of important spatial and temporal patterns in the human footprint, and we discuss a number of remaining unanswered questions for subsequent focused analyses.
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